Home

Temperature Measurements in Boreholes:

An Overview of Engineering and Scientific Applications

Stephen Prensky, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver

[Originally published in 1992, The Log Analyst, v. 33, no. 3, p.313-333.]

INTRODUCTION

Temperature data obtained in boreholes serve as critical input to many fields of engineering, exploration, and research: (1) in well completions, (2) gas and fluid production engineering, (3) in the exploration for hydrocarbons and ore minerals, and (4) for testing hypotheses concerning the evolution of the Earth's crust and tectonic processes. Wireline-conveyed maximum-recording thermometers and continuous-reading thermistors are used to measure absolute temperatures, differential temperatures, and temperature gradients at depth. Temperature logs can detect thermal anomalies produced by temperature contrasts between the borehole fluid and the formation fluid or formation (also cement behind casing). A variety of information can be obtained from the identification and interpretation of these anomalies. High-resolution temperature-gradient logs can be used for detailed lithologic identification and correlation, of similar quality to other electric and nuclear well logs. The intent of this paper is to provide a general introduction to the diverse applications of these data.

GEOTHERMICS

Geothermics is the subdiscipline of geophysics that studies terrestrial heat flow (see Kappelmeyer and Haenel, 1974; Buntebarth, G., 1984; Haenel et al., 1988; Jessop, 1990a). Heat flow is the transfer of heat from the earth's interior to the surface and is the principal driver of geological processes. The major source of the interior heat is the decay of radioelements in the earth's crust and upper mantle: up to 70% of continental heat flow may be generated within the upper 10-20 km of the crust; while 96% of the oceanic heat flow is from beneath the oceanic crust which largely devoid of radioactive elements (Kearey and Vine, 1990). The distribution of heat flow is related to the tectonic history of the earth's crust, i.e., the average heat-flow density is inversely proportional to the geologic age of a tectonic unit or of oceanic crust (Sclater et al., 1980; Condie, 1989). Within a given tectonic unit, heat-flow density patterns reflect regional differences in crustal radioactivity, fault distribution, hydrogeology, and hydrothermal activity (Cermak, 1983). Knowledge of the subsurface temperature field is central to understanding the origin and evolution of sedimentary basins, oil and gas generation, deposition of ore bodies, and the occurrence of earthquakes and volcanism (Nielsen, 1986). While geothermics is primarily concerned with heat flow, in a broad sense, it can be considered to include all applications of subsurface (borehole) temperature data.

Heat-flow measurements in boreholes are made by combining sets of temperature and thermal-conductivity data by the formula Q = K(dt/dz), where Q is heat flow, K is thermal conductivity, and t is temperature at depth z.

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

Thermal conductivity, a basic physical property of rocks and fluids, varies with changes in rock composition. Thermal conductivity is inversely proportional to thermal gradient (see above formula). A temperature (gradient) log in a well in thermal equilibrium shows the actual variation of geothermal gradient (i.e. thermal conductivity) with lithology (Figure 1) (Hill, 1990). Reliable values of thermal conductivity are essential to models of basin evolution and thermal maturation. "If the mean conductivity cannot be accurately predicted, even the most sophisticated and appropriate modeling techniques...are not sufficient for accurate temperature predictions" (Blackwell and Steele, 1989).

Thermal conductivity is normally measured in the laboratory on core, crushed samples, or well cuttings using one of two techniques: divided bar or needle probe (Blackwell and Spafford, 1987; Beck, 1988; Jessop, 1990a; Somerton, 1992). There is great interest in in-situ determination of thermal conductivity, either by direct or indirect methods. In particular, the ability to accurately determine thermal conductivity from well logs is highly desirable because of the large number of exploration wells that have been drilled and the wide availability of well-log data from these wells (Anand et al., 1973; Goss et al., 1975; Hagedorn, 1985; Vacquier et al., 1988; Dove and Williams, 1989; Brigaud et al., 1989; Brigaud et al., 1990; Demongodin et al., 1991; Seto and Bharatha, 1991; Brigaud et al., 1992). Other approaches include inversion techniques (Ponzini et al., 1989), borehole relaxation (Wilhelm, 1990), non-linear fitting (Da-Xin, 1986), temperature-buildup curves (Xu and Desbrandes, 1991), thermal pulse (Silliman and Neuzil, 1990), and variation in circulation flow rate (Pascal et al., 1989), estimation from thermal gradients (Hoang, 1980; Somerton, 1992).

BOREHOLE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND DATA REDUCTION

Historical Background

Jessop (1990a) presents a history of the measurement of underground temperatures. Briefly, the earliest measurements of underground temperatures were made during the 1700s, soon after thermometers were developed, in mine shafts, tunnels, and water wells. Some of the earliest systematic measurements in boreholes were conducted between 1868 and 1883 under the auspices of a committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (see Jessop, 1990a). One purpose of these studies was to examine and compile data on regional geothermal gradients. A primary impetus was "the necessity of reducing working temperatures in mines and tunnels to within safe and comfortable limits..." (Strong, 1933). Initially, these measurements were individual readings from maximum-reading thermometers, taken at depths up to several hundred feet.

The development of the petroleum industry during the second half of the nineteenth century made deep boreholes available for subsurface temperature measurement and the parallel development of electrical-resistance thermometers greatly improved the accuracy and precision of the measurements. It was at this time that temperature measurement and geothermics "...assumed general economic value and wide scientific interest" (see API, 1930; Strong, 1933). In two of the early systematic studies of borehole temperatures in deep wells, Johnson and Adams (1916) and Van Orstrand (1918) used both hand-operated maximum-reading mercury thermometers and electrical-resistance equipment. Van Orstrand (1918) discussed temperature anomalies associated with fluid entry (gas, oil, and water) into the borehole. Schlumberger first introduced the temperature survey, using continous-recording logging tools, in the late 1930s. This survey had immediate applications in design and repair of well completions and in production engineering (Guyod, 1936; Leonardon, 1936; Deussen and Guyod, 1937; Schlumberger et al., 1937). the wide-spread use of temperature logging was boosted with publication of Guyod's (1946) series of articles discussing theory and the various (then) current and potential uses, in a petroleum-industry trade journal.

Current Methods of Measurement

The majority of borehole temperature measurements are obtained as maximum-reading values acquired during logging runs or as continuous-recorded temperature surveys in wells drilled for commercial purposes (exploration and production of hydrocarbons, minerals, and geothermal energy) and water wells. Due to the conditions under which these data are obtained and the purposes for which they are used, the accuracy of these data are much lower than those obtained for measurement of heat flow. Time constraints imposed by the commercial nature of these wells means that wells may be logged during, or soon after circulation of drilling fluids, during production flow of gas and fluids, and at high logging speeds. The effective accuracy of commercial temperature logs is 0.5C (Blackwell and Spafford, 1987). These data, obtained under dynamic conditions, must then be extrapolated to static conditions. Jorden and Campbell (1984), Plisga (1987), and Hill (1990) summarize the acquisition and uses of temperature surveys and temperature logging in the petroleum industry and Hallenburg (1984) and Jessop and Judge (1975), in mineral exploration.

Blackwell and Spafford (1987), Haenel et al. (1988), and Jessop (1990a) provide excellent reviews of the scientific measurement of heat flow, both the technology and the methodology. While various types of wireline techniques (electrical and nonelectrical) have been used to measure borehole temperatures, in general, the most accurate temperature and heat-flow data are obtained with high-resolution thermistors lowered into small-diameter, thermally stable boreholes at logging speeds of 30-50 ft/min (10-15 m/min) (Blackwell and Spafford, 1987; Beck and Balling, 1988; Blackwell and Steele, 1989). These data are generally recorded as continuous temperature or temperature gradient logs. Although the resolution of "research" equipment may range between 0.0001C and 0.001C, typical accuracy ranges from 0.02C to 0.05C (Blackwell and Spafford, 1987). The "thermal recovery" time for a borehole (Figure 2) may range from a few days for a shallow (100-150 m) air-drilled hole to several months for deep mud-drilled oilwells (Blackwell and Spafford, 1987).

Data Reduction - Correction to Static Conditions

There have been many methods and algorithms proposed to extrapolate bottomhole temperature (BHT) values measured during drilling (during thermal disturbance), or soon after circulation has ceased (during thermal relaxation), to obtain static ("true") borehole or formation temperature. Cao et al. (1988a) divided these methods into two general classes, (1) those that concentrate on the bottom of the borehole where the BHT value is measured, and (2) those that simulate of the evolution of the temperature of the complete mud column. Because the determination of "static" bottomhole temperature is important to all applications of borehole-temperature data, a more in-depth discussion is provided along with a complete listing of relevant citations.

The original (and also the simplest) method to determine formation temperature and temperature gradients, is the two-point, or multiple-point average temperature gradient. A linear relationship is assumed between the ambient surface temperature and BHT temperatures at other depths are determined by interpolation (Schlumberger et al., 1937). Summers (1972) and Speece et al. (1985) used regression techniques to calculate geothermal gradients for large data sets.

Most techniques (using algorithms or time-temperature curves) treat temperature as a transient function, i.e., they involve progressive measurements of temperature with time after cessation of circulation, to extrapolate the temperature at static conditions (Bullard, 1947; Cooper and Jones, 1959; Lachenbruch and Brewer, 1959; Jaeger, 1961; Cheremenski, 1960; Edwardson et al., 1962; Schoeppel and Gilarranz, 1966; Kehle et al., 1971; Parasnis, 1971; Oxburgh et al., 1972; Manetti, G., 1973; Middleton, 1979, 1982). The most commonly used method is the time-sequential, Horner-type extrapolation of bottomhole temperature (BHT) data (Timko and Fertl, 1972; Dowdle and Cobb, 1974; Fertl and Wichmann, 1977; Tanaka and Sato, 1977; Leblanc et al., 1982; Drury, 1984; Sasaki, 1985, 1987; Fertl, et al., 1986; Kritikos and Kutasov, 1988; Hasan and Kabir, 1992).

Other approaches include: the transient method of borehole relaxation (Oxburgh et al., 1972; Luheshi, 1983); transient methods using graphical type-curves (Barelli and Palama, 1981; Lee 1982; Dixon, 1986); least-squares inversion (Vasseur et al., 1985); empirical relationships between BHT and temperatures obtained during shut-in (and buildup) testing (Joyner, 1975; Oxburgh and Andrew-Speed, 1981; Sekiguchi, 1984; Ben Dhia, 1987; 1988; see "Geothermal Energy"); and mathematical inversion methods (see "Recent Developments"). Ribeiro (1987) uses an approach for correcting temperature data in water wells (bottom well temperatures, BWT) similar to that of using BHT data in petroleum wells.

Determining the bottomhole temperature during circulation, or the temperature at points along the borehole during production flow, are needed for designing well completions, interpretation of production logs, and in production engineering. A number of methods have been proposed for estimating downhole temperatures during circulation (bottomhole circulating temperature, BHCT) and production (e.g., Boldizar, 1958; Lesem, 1958; Moss, 1959; Edwardson et al., 1962; Ramey, 1962; Tragesser et al., 1967; Keller and Crouch, 1968, Raymond, 1969; Holmes and Swift, 1970; Keller et al., 1973; Sump and Williams, 1973; Chernayak, 1979; Shiu and Begs, 1980; Wooley, 1980, for a summary of pre-1980 developments Middleton, 1982; Beck and Shen, 1985; Thompson and Burgess, 1985; Jones, 1986; Ribeiro and Hamza, 1986; Shen and Beck, 1986; see "Recent Developments").

The widespread availability of powerful computers and the routine use of digital databases makes it possible to generate fieldwide and regional studies using BHT data. Many early studies of this type used uncorrected BHT values (e.g., Schoeppel and Gilarranz, 1966; Harper, 1971; Summers, 1972; Grisafi et al, 1974; Carvalho and Vacquier, 1977; Staub and Treat, 1981; Reiter and Tovar, 1982; Eggleston and Reiter, 1984; Alam and Pilger, 1986). Some early studies, and most of the more recent ones apply some type of correction to the BHT values to account for thermal disturbances (drilling-fluid circulation) (e.g. Evans and Coleman, 1974; Evans, 1977; Carstens and Finstad, 1981; Chapman et al., 1984; Vacquier, 1984; Reiter et al., 1986; Deming and Chapman, 1987; 1988b; Willett and Chapman, 1987; Ben Dhia, 1988, 1991; Kumar, 1989; Jones, et al., 1989; Lucazeau and Ben Dhia, 1989; Correia et al., 1990).

In addition to correcting measured temperature data to equilibrium conditions, it is common in heat-flow studies, where very small variations (0.01C) are considered significant and accuracy is critical, to further reduce (correct) these data for a number of geological factors: climate, topography, uplift and erosion (see discussion in Jessop, 1990a).

APPLICATIONS

The applications of borehole-temperature data can be grouped into two broad categories, engineering uses and scientific uses. There is a certain amount of overlap between these groups, particularly in the area of hydrocarbon and minerals exploration.

Engineering Uses

Correction of Resistivity Logs. Electrical resistivity is a function of temperature and salinity. Well-log interpretation requires that measurements of resistivity at surface conditions (e.g., mud characteristics Rm, Rmf, Rmc) as well as in the borehole (Rw, Rt), be corrected to formation temperature at the depth of interest (this requires calculation of a geothermal gradient) (see charts Gen 6-9, Schlumberger, 1989).

Reservoir Engineering. Temperature is required for calculations of hydrocarbon recovery factors, including pressure-volume-temperature relationships, and gas-oil ratios.

Well Completion and Production Logging. (Including the production of hydrocarbons and geothermal energy, and in the study of groundwater and aquifer potential.)

Casing cements - Setting cement is an exothermic reaction that produces an obvious temperature anomaly (Figure 3). Temperature data are used in designing cement slurries, for locating the top of casing cement, and for detecting channels in the cement (Venditto and George, 1984; Bergren and Bradley, 1988; Jutten and Morriss, 1990; Tilghman et al., 1990; Pilkington, 1992).

Completion design. Temperature data are required for assessing drilling-mud composition; the stability of tubulars (drillpipe, casing, tubing) to avoid buckling due to thermal stress; design of packers, wellhead, and production equipment; deposition of waxes in tubing; design of drill bits (Wooley, 1980).

Fluid flow. Liquids entering the wellbore have warmer temperatures than the borehole fluids while those entering the formation will have cooler temperatures (Figure 4). Gas entering the wellbore cools by expansion while gas injected into the formation heats by compression (Joule-Thompson effect) (Figure 5). Temperature anomalies are used for identifying the depth of fluid and gas entry or exit, detection of casing leaks and intervals of lost circulation, locating underground blowouts and sources of gas kicks, and for volumetric determinations of this flow for purposes of production and injection (Plisga, 1987; McKinley, 1989; Hill, 1990).

Evaluation of fractures. Zones of natural fractures can be identified and induced fractures can be evaluated (both pre- and post-fracture treatments) using temperature anomalies produced by the contrast in temperature between injected fluid and formation fluids (Figure 6) (Anderson, 1989; Hill, 1990). Acid treatments are also used to stimulate fluid production; the reactions of the acid with the formation rock produces an exothermic reaction which in generates thermal anomalies. Evaluation of acid treatments is made by examination of these anomalies.

Fluid injection. Temperature anomalies of the type mentioned above, are used to identify permeable (fractured) zones for injection of water and steam and in the monitoring flood sweep efficiency (Wood and Dunham, 1986; Fialka et al., 1990).

Waste disposal - Anomalies present on temperature surveys can be used to trace injection progress during fluid-waste disposal and for assessing mechanical integrity of wells (Jarrell and Lyle, 1987; see also "Hydrology", below).

Scientific Uses

Stratigraphic Correlation. As mentioned earlier, changes in thermal conductivity (thermal gradient) may correspond to lithologic variations and an accurate temperature-gradient log (T-log) may be used for stratigraphic correlation in some areas (Figure 7) (Deussen and Guyod, 1937; Judge and Beck, 1973; Beck, 1976; Conaway and Beck, 1977; Reiter et al., 1980). Below the water table, precision temperature logs can often provide more detailed and accurate lithologic information than natural gamma-ray logs in sandstones and limestones that contain significant amounts of shale since temperature logs are not affected by the presence of radioactive (K-U-Th) minerals (Blackwell and Spafford, 1987). In general, thermal resistivity has a negative correlation with electrical resistivity (Figure 7), except for coal units. The T-log is useful for identifying coals, especially when other high-resistivity formations are present (Beck, 1976; Kayal, 1981; Kayal and Christoffel, 1982).

Basin Analysis and Modeling.

Basin hydrodynamics. Thermally driven groundwater circulation (together with thermal conductivity) exerts the major influence on the temperatures within a sedimentary basin during its evolution (Blackwell et al., 1983; Smith and Chapman, 1983; Chapman, 1987; Bethke et al., 1988; Blackwell and Steele, 1989; Jessop, 1989; Majorowicz, 1989; Chapman et al., 1991). Modeling has demonstrated the existence of thermally driven fluid circulation in many basins (recent examples include Bachu, 1985; Hitchon et al., 1986; Jones and Majorowicz, 1987; Kukkonen, 1988; Beck et al., 1989; Vugrinovich, 1989; Willett and Chapman, 1989; Ben Dhia, 1991). Basin hydrodynamics are intimately related to migration and deposition of hydrocarbon deposits (Hitchon, 1984; Hermanrud, 1986; Roberts, 1986; Toth, 1988; Davis, 1991), ore minerals (Roberts, 1986; Hitchon et al., 1987; Sharp and Kyle, 1988; Bethke and Marshak, 1990), and geothermal-energy potential (see "Geothermal Energy").

Modeling thermal maturation of organic matter. Increases in temperature and pressure with burial are the determining factors in the maturation of organic matter (kerogen) and the subsequent generation of hydrocarbons (Tissot et al., 1971; Lopatin, 1971; Waples, 1984; Tissot et al., 1987; Wood, 1988; Barker, 1989b). Lerche (1990a, 1990b) discusses the different methods used to assess thermal history and thermal maturity. Determination of thermal maturity and the paleoheat flux of basins can provide important insights into the timing of petroleum generation, migration, accumulation, and preservation (Nuccio and Barker, 1990). Consequently, an understanding of the history of a basin, especially the thermal history (paleogeothermics) results in an improved model for use in exploration for oil and natural gas (Burrus, 1986; Stegna, 1988; Barker, 1989a; McCullough and Naeser, 1989; Deming et al., 1989).

Detection of Zones of Overpressuring. Sharp breaks in the thermal gradient occur at the top of overpressured reservoirs. The increased water content contained in overpressured shales (due to undercompaction and/or clay diagenesis) results in this increase in geothermal gradient. The resulting "dog-leg" in the geothermal gradient may serve as a predictor of overpressuring (Lewis and Rose, 1970; George, 1970; Jones, 1975; Pilkington, 1988). A similar "dog-leg" in paleotemperature (vitrinite reflectance) profiles may reflect paleopore pressure (Law, et al., 1989). Fertl and Leach (1990) conclude that in Gulf Coast Tertiary rocks, the highest concentrations of hydrocarbons are found near the top of overpressuring. Temperature logs may thus serve as an exploration tool.

Exploration for Energy Minerals

Petroleum and coal. Early efforts to apply borehole temperature and temperature logs to hydrocarbon exploration centered on the potential for using thermal anomalies for identifying petroleum deposits and structural traps (e.g., Anonymous, 1930; Carlson, 1930; DeGolyer, 1918; Thom, 1925; Van Orstrand, 1926, 1941; Heald, 1930) and for distinguishing hydrocarbon-bearing intervals from water zones (Guyod, 1946). Although there is a difference in thermal conductivity of oil compared to other fluids and rock, these efforts were largely unsuccessful because the overall thermal conductivity of reservoir rocks was little affected by the slight differences in thermal properties of hydrocarbons and water (Hill, 1990).

More recently, improved understanding of the strong dependence of thermal maturation/petroleum generation on temperature has led to renewed interest in using thermal data in the exploration for hydrocarbons, in particular, the recognition that thermal gradients can be used to identify prospective areas for oil and gas exploration. Temperature and heat-flow data can identify lateral and vertical thermal anomalies which may be associated with zones of enhanced maturation and oil accumulations (Gretener, 1981; Roberts, 1981; Ball, 1982; Hitchon, 1984; McConnell, 1985; Myer and McGee, 1985; Blackwell, 1986; Jones et al., 1986; Majorowicz et al., 1988; McGee et al., 1989; Anderson and Williams, 1990; Swift et al., 1990).

Hydrodynamic analysis can be used to test geological structures to see if they can serve as hydrocarbon traps (Davis, 1991). A local source of heat that results in an enhanced heat flow, e.g., volcanic rocks or magmatic intrusion (Summer and Verosub, 1989), or resulting from a sharp contrast in thermal conductivity, e.g., salt domes (Selig and Wallick, 1966; O'Brien and Lerche, 1984, 1988), can provide an enhanced environment for hydrocarbon maturation. Kayal (1981), Kayal and Christoffel (1982), and Mwenifumbo (1989) have discussed the use of temperatures logs in the exploration for coal seams and for evaluation of coal quality.

Permafrost and gas hydrates. To protect exploration, production, and engineering projects against problems of ground instability that are related to thawing and refreezing of permafrost, it is necessary to know the thickness of and temperature distribution within permafrost (Lachenbruch et al., 1982; Collett et al., 1989). This information is also needed for correction of seismic velocities, developing regional groundwater models; and the identification and evaluation of gas hydrates (Hnatiuk and Randall, 1977; Collett and Bird, 1988). Temperature logs run in time-lapse sequence (as the borehole fluid approaches thermal stabilization), provide the best estimate of permafrost thickness, i.e., depth to 0C (permafrost base) (Hnatiuk and Randall, 1977; Taylor and Judge, 1981). Scott et al. (1985) review the use of wireline logs for identifying and interpreting permafrost. The presence of frozen methane raises the melting point and extends the influence of frozen ground downward (Jessop, 1990a). Jones et al. (1989) and Majorowicz et al. (1990) discuss the applications of statistical BHT studies for studying permafrost and subpermafrost heat flow.

Gas hydrates (more precisely called clathrates) are a solid form of methane trapped in a crystalline framework of ice. Gas hydrates represent a significant potential hydrocarbon resource, in fact estimates of hydrate reserves are twice as great as the combined fossil energy resource (Trofimuk et al., 1984; Collett and Kvenvolden, 1989; Sloan, 1990, 1991; Appenzeller, 1991; Collett, 1992). The specific conditions of temperature and pressure under which hydrates form are common in (1) northern latitudes and Arctic areas beneath zones of permafrost, and (2) just below the ocean floor along continental margins (Kvenvolden and Cooper, 1987; Kvenvolden and Grantz, 1990; Sloan, 1990). In addition to thermal conductivity, contrasts in other physical properties between ice (permafrost) and hydrates permits identification by other types of well logs (Collett et al., 1988; 1989).

Exploration for Ore Minerals. Hydrodynamic circulation of thermal fluids is the primary factor in the genesis and deposition of many stratabound, vein, and skarn-type ore- (metallic) minerals (Roberts, 1986; Garven, 1986; Sverjansky, 1987; Sharp and Kyle, 1988; Bethke and Marshak, 1990). There has been increasing interest in incorporating hydrodynamics into a total basin-analysis approach to gain a better understanding of the genesis and distribution of ore-mineral deposits (Force et al., 1991; Klein, 1991). Temperature data are used for detecting thermal anomalies that may be related to ore bodies by the following mechanisms: heat refraction resulting from the contrast in thermal conductivities between ore and surrounding rock (e.g. sphalerite deposits); local contrasts in heat generation resulting from radioactive elements in the ore or ore zone; local contrasts in heat generation resulting from the oxidation of sulphides; recent intrusion of volcanics with which the ore is associated; movement of water along ore-associated fracture zones (Guyod, 1946; Jessop and Judge, 1975; Houseman et al., 1989; Mwenifumbo, 1991).

Hydrology/Hydrogeology

Groundwater. As mentioned previously, temperature logs are used to detect and measure fluid flow. Most published work in this field is related to detection of regional aquifer flow (discussed above under "Basin Hydrodynamics"); intra-well flow (see "Production Logging"); the detection of fracture zones; and planning for, or detection of the injection of fluid wastes (Drury et al., 1984; Williams et al., 1984; Jessop, 1987; Berner, 1987; Conaway, 1988; Drury, 1989; Jessop, 1990; Keys, 1990).

Geothermal energy. Work in this field is centered around exploration and reservoir assessment. In addition, the high-temperature conditions have required development of special logging tools and cables (Lysne et al., 1990). Exploration for geothermal reservoirs involves identification of thermal anomalies (Wright et al., 1985; Mongelli and Haenel, 1988; Rybach, 1989; Gosnold, 1991). A recent trend has been to employ BHT data from oilwells in reconnaissance surveys (Jones et al., 1985; Lam and Jones, 1986).

The most important measurements for geothermal reservoir assessment are formation temperature and thermal conductivity as well as identification of fractures (Murphy and Lawton, 1977; Fertl, and Overton, 1982; Drury, 1989). These values can be used for estimating thermal gradient, heat content, and production capacity (Mathews, 1982). Estimates of static formation temperature are made using borehole temperature buildup data (Roux et al., 1980; Brennand, 1984; Hermanrud et al., 1991), Horner plots (after Dowdle and Cobb, 1975), or relatively new nuclear logging techniques (Ross et al., 1982).

Mining and Civil Engineering. Included under this heading are construction in permafrost regions (discussed above), storage of heat-producing wastes, and design of technical installations in mines (Delisle, 1988). Thermal anomalies resulting from fluid flow have been used to detect leaks in pipelines and in dams (Kappelmeyer and Haenel, 1974).

Paleoclimatology. Temperature changes at the earth's surface propagate downwards to depths that depend on the magnitude and duration of the temperature disturbance at the surface. Temperature disturbances (anomalies and inversions) may serve as indicators both of past climates and the amount of surface temperature change (Lane, 1923; Strong, 1933; Birch, 1948; Crain, 1968; Cermak, 1971, 1976, 1977; Beck, 1982; Shen and Beck, 1983; Lachenbruch and Marshall, 1986; Harrison, 1991). Seasonal changes may affect only the upper 20 m, climate changes since the end of the Pleistocene may affect the upper 500 m, and the glacial effect from the Pleistocene may affect the upper 1000-2000 m (Jessop, 1990a).

As mentioned earlier, temperature data, especially in shallow boreholes, must be corrected for these disturbances in order to obtain accurate measurements of heat flow (Beck, 1977; Vasseur and Lucazeau, 1983; Clauser, 1984). The rapid warming in the years 1880-1940 produced a temperature inversion in thermal gradient at depths of 50-100 m in many parts of North America and Australia (Jessop, 1990a).

Study of the Earth's Evolution. While it is generally accepted that plate motions are due to mantle convection (Condie, 1989; Kearey and Vine, 1990), the occurrence of mantle upwelling unrelated to plate boundaries (mantle plumes and "hot spots") has led to an ongoing debate on whether the plates "drive" themselves by subsidence and subduction or are passively transported by mantle convection. Thermal data (temperature and conductivity) provide a means for calibrating empirical and theoretical geological and geophysical models of the crust (Williams and Anderson, 1990). Such models are used in the examination of plate tectonics, crustal studies, magma emplacement, and structural geology. As discussed above, regional thermal studies may have direct application in that they may serve to identify the location of mining belts (Sawkins, 1990) and areas of thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential.

The following references represent a brief selection of recent papers that provide an introduction to thermal applications in crustal studies: Sclater et al., 1980; Chapman and Rybach, 1985; Uyeda, 1988; Pollack and Sass, 1988; Bristow, 1989; Morgan and Gosnold, 1989; De Rito et al., 1989; Gallagher, 1990; Jessop, 1990a; Blackwell, et al., 1991. The number of individual papers is far too numerous to cite, however, frequent sources of such papers are the journals Geophysics, Geothermics, Journal of Geodynamics, Journal of Geophysical Research, and Tectonophysics. These journals frequently publish the proceedings of symposia on heat flow (e.g., Jessop, 1977; Beck, 1985; Rybach, 1985; Uyeda et al., 1989; Cermak et al., 1989; Cermak and Sass, 1991).

In addition to regional and basin studies, boreholes drilled for scientific research are serving as foci for thermal studies designed to further our understanding of basic processes contributing to crustal evolution (Williams and Anderson, 1990). Recent projects of significance include the Cajon Pass well (Lachenbruch, and Sass, 1988, 1992; Williams et al., 1988; Sass et al., 1992), Salton Sea drilling project (Sass et al., 1988; Newmark, et al., 1988), KTB program (Burkhardt et al., 1989), Toa Baja (Anderson and Larue, 1991), and DSDP/ODP boreholes (most sites involve measurements of heat flow, e.g., Hyndman et al., 1984; Gable et al., 1989; Nobes et al., 1991; Shipboard Scientific Party, 1992).

RECENT ADVANCES IN BOREHOLE GEOTHERMICS

Static Formation Temperature

Beck and Balling (1988) discuss and compare the methods current to 1988. Most of the methods cited above in the section on "Data Reduction," use "forward" modeling, i.e., temperature values are obtained by the forward (in time) calculation of given parameter values and the subsequent adjustment of these parameters to fit the observed data (Cao et al., 1988a). The most recent trend involves the application of mathematical inversion techniques (generally based on finite-element models) to determine static ("true") formation temperature. Inversion techniques work backwards from the observed data to infer values of the input parameters (Cao et al., 1988a, 1988b; Deming and Chapman, 1988a, 1988b; Deming, 1989; Hermanrud and Shen, 1989, Hermanrud et al., 1990; Lerche, 1990b, Nielsen et al., 1990; McPherson and Chapman, 1991). Both Hermanrud et al. (1990) and Nielsen et al. (1990) conclude that in comparison with other techniques, their inversion methods yield temperatures that are (1) higher than those obtained by the Horner-type extrapolation, and (2) that are more consistent with temperatures obtained during DST and production tests.

Borehole Temperatures for Well Completions and in Flowing Wells

New methods and algorithms have been developed for improved determination of BHCT, temperatures during flow, and formation temperatures from shut-in temperature buildup. BHCT is crucial to various cementing practices during well completion, e.g., design of cement slurries (Kutasov et al., 1988; Tilghman et al., 1990; Kabinoff et al., 1992). Information on wellbore heat loss and dynamic temperature profiles (taken during fluid flow or injection) is important to production engineering. A number of papers in the recent literature have proposed new methods to obtain these data (e.g., flow-rate pulses, Pascal et al., 1989), refinements to existing methods (e.g., shut-in temperature buildup, Carslon and Barnette, 1988; drillstem tests, Hermanrud et al., 1991), or new mathematical models for determining wellbore heat loss and fluid temperatures (Kutasov, 1989; Sagar et al., 1989; Seyer and Landen, 1990; Hasan and Kabir, 1991a, 1991b).

Application of Computer BHT Databases

Large digital databases of BHT data, originally compiled under the sponsorship of AAPG (Kehle et al., 1971), permit analysis of data from thousands of wells for the evaluation of the thermal regimes of sedimentary basins. The statistics of using large databases helps to reduce the inaccuracies that are inherent in individual BHT values (see review by Bachu et al., 1987). This effort was led by a Canadian group investigating the hydrodynamics and energy potential of the western Canada basin (Majorowicz and Jessop, 1981; Lam and Jones, 1982; Lam and Jones; 1984a, 1984b; Majorowicz et al., 1984; Jones et al., 1985; Lam et al., 1985; Majorowicz et al., 1985; Lam and Jones, 1986; Majorowicz et al., 1986). Similar techniques have been applied by others in other regions (Speece et al., 1985; Bodner and Sharp, 1987; Hitchon et al., 1987; Majorowicz et al., 1988; Pfeiffer and Sharp, 1989; Jones, 1991).

In-situ Measurement of Thermal Conductivity (see above, "Thermal Conductivity")

Paleoclimatology

There has been renewed interest in the use of subsurface temperature data to infer climate changes, e.g., the American Geophysical Union devoted full technical sessions to this topic at its 1989 and 1990 fall meetings (Jessop, 1990b; Pollack and Clow, 1990). Recent papers use both linear regression (Gosnold and Bauer, 1991) and inversion techniques (Mongelli and Zito, 1988; Hall and Thomas-Betts, 1989; Nielsen and Beck, 1989) for extracting information on paleoclimate from temperature logs (see above, "Paleoclimatology").

Changes in Sea Level

Anomalies in shallow temperature gradients are used to identify changes in shoreline position, i.e., uplift/sea-level change, in Arctic regions (Taylor, 1991).

SUMMARY

Temperatures obtained in boreholes, either as single values from maximum-reading instruments or as continuous temperature surveys or logs, are essential to many areas of engineering and scientific research. These include: commercial applications e.g., exploration for, and production of, energy and ore minerals; research on tectonic processes associated with evolution of basins and crustal studies; and studies on climate change. The identification and interpretation of temperature anomalies in the thermal gradient is used to identify (1) fluid flow (in, or around, a borehole and also on a basin scale), (2) exothermic reactions (setting cement, mineral oxidation), (3) zones of enhanced thermal maturation of organic material and potential accumulations of hydrocarbons or coal, (4) changes in surface temperature with time. Measurement of crustal heat flow is used to map regional and worldwide variations that are in turn used for developing models of crustal evolution.

REFERENCES

Agnew, B.G., 1966, Evaluation of fracture treatments with temperature surveys: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 18, no. 7, p. 892-98.

Alam, A.H.M.S., and Pilger, R.H., Jr., 1986, Subsurface temperature investigations using seismic and bore hole temperature data, Vermilion and Lafourche Parishes, Louisiana: Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, v. 36, p. 1-7.

American Petroleum Institute, 1930, Earth temperatures in oil fields: Production Bulletin 205, 139 p.

Anand, J., Somerton, W.H., and Gomaa, E., 1973, Predicting thermal conductivities of formations from other known properties: Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, v. 13, p. 267-273.

Anderson, R.N., 1989, Methods for monitoring temperature-vs-depth characteristics in a borehole: International Patent Application No. WO 89/02972, April 6.

Anderson, R.N., and Larue, D.K., 1991, Well bore heat flow from the Toa Baja scientific drillhole, Puerto Rico: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 18, no. 3, p. 537-540.

Anderson, R.N., and Williams, C.F., 1990, Method of locating oil and gas horizons using a wellbore heat flow log: U.S. Patent No. 4,947,682.

Anonymous, 1930, Geothermotics as a means of locating petroleum deposits: Petroleum Times, v. 23, no. 588, April 19, p. 713-714.

Appenzeller, T., 1991, Fire and ice under the deep-sea floor: Science, v. 252, June 28, p. 1790-1792.

Bachu, S., 1985, Influence of lithology and fluid flow on the temperature distribution in a sedimentary basin; a case study from the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada: Tectonophysics, v. 120, p. 257-284.

Bachu, S., Sauveplane, C.M., Lytviak, A.T., and Hitchon, B., 1987, Analysis of fluid and heat regimes in sedimentary basins--Techniques for use with large data bases: AAPG Bulletin, v. 71(7), p. 822-843.

Ball, S.M., 1982, Exploration application of temperatures recorded on log headings--an up-the-odds method of hydrocarbon-charged porosity predictions: AAPG Bulletin, v. 66, no. 8, p. 1108-1123.

Barelli, A., and Palama, A., 1981, A new method for evaluating formation equilibrium temperatures in holes during drilling: Geothermics, v. 10, no. 2, p. 95-102.

Barker, C.E., 1989a, Geothermics applied to the reconstruction of subsurface temperatures, in Magoon, L.B., ed., The petroleum system--status of research and methods, 1990: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1912, p. 36-42.

Barker, C.E., 1989b, Temperature and time in the thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter, chapter 5, in Naeser, N.D., and McCullough, T.H., eds., Thermal history of sedimentary basins; methods and case histories: Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 73-98.

Beck, A.E., 1976, The use of thermal resistivity logs in stratigraphic correlation: Geophysics, v. 41, no. 2, p. 300-309.

Beck, A.E., 1977, Climatically perturbed temperature gradients and their effect on regional and continental heat-flow means: Tectonophysics, v. 41, p. 17-39.

Beck, A.E., 1982, Precision logging of temperature gradients and the extraction of past climate: Tectonophysics, v. 83, p. 1-11.

Beck, A.E., ed., 1985, Terrestrial heat flow and thermal regimes: Tectonophysics, v. 121, no. 1, 1-108. p.

Beck, A.E., 1988, Methods for determining thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, chapter 4.1, in R. Haenel, L. Rybach, and L. Stegna, eds., Handbook of terrestrial heat-flow density determination: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 87-124.

Beck, A.E., and Balling, N., 1988, Determination of virgin rock temperatures, in R. Haenel, L. Rybach, and L. Stegna, eds., Handbook of terrestrial heat-flow density determination: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 59-85.

Beck, A.E., Garven, G., Stegna, L., eds., 1989, Hydrogeological regimes and their subsurface thermal effects: American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph No. 47, 158 p.

Beck, A.E., and Shen, P.Y., 1985, Temperature distribution in flowing liquid wells: Geophysics, v. 50, no. 7, p. 1113-1118.

Ben Dhia, H., 1987, The geothermal gradient map of central Tunesia--comparison with structural, gravimetric, and petroleum data: Tectonophysics, v. 142, p. 99-109.

Ben Dhia, H., 1988, Tunesian geothermal data from oil wells: Geophysics, v. 53, no. 11, p. 1479-1487.

Ben Dhia, H., 1991, Thermal regime and hydrodynamics in Tunesia and Algeria: Geophysics, v. 56, no. 7, p. 1093-1102.

Bergren, F.E., and Bradley, 1988, Design and evaluation of pumpin temperature surveys for detecting cement channels above perforations, SPE-18145, in Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, v. delta, Drilling: Society of Petroleum Engineers,p. 385-392.

Berner, J.G., 1987, Planning successful temperature surveys, in International Symposium on Subsurface Injection of Oilfield Brine Proceedings: Underground Injection Practices Council, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, p. 512-534.

Bethke C.M., Harrison, W.J., Upson, C., and Altaner, S.P., 1988, Supercomputer analysis of sedimentary basins: Science, v. 239, January 15, p. 261-267.

Bethke, C.M., and Marshak, S., 1990, Brine migrations across North America--the plate tectonics of groundwater: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, v. 18, p. 287-315.

Birch, F., 1948, The effects of Pleistocene climatic variations upon geothermal gradients: American Journal of Science, v. 246, no. 12, p. 729-760.

Blackwell, D.D., 1986, Use of heat flow/temperature measurements, including shallow measurements, in hydrocarbon exploration, in Davidson, M.J., ed., Unconventional methods in exploration for petroleum and natural gas, IV: Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas, Institute for the Study of Earth and Man, p. 321-350.

Blackwell, D.D., and Spafford, R.E., 1987, Experimental methods in continental heat flow, chapter 14, in Sammis, C.G., and Henyey, T.L, eds., Geophysics, part B, field measurements: Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, Methods of Experimental Physics, v. 24, p. 189-226.

Blackwell, D.D., and Steele, J.L., 1989, Thermal conductivity of sedimentary rock--measurement and significance, chapter 2, in Naeser, N.D., and McCullough, T.H., eds., Thermal history of sedimentary basins; methods and case histories: Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 13-36.

Blackwell, D.D., Steele, J.L., and Carter, L.S., 1991, Heat-flow patterns of the North American continent; a discussion of the Geothermal Map of North America, chapter 23, in Slemmons, D.B., Engdahl, E.R., Zoback M.D., and Blackwell, D.D., eds., Neotectonics of North America: Geological Society of America, Decade Map Volume 1, p. 423--436.

Blackwell, D., Steele, J., and Hagedorn, D., 1983, Use of precise temperature logs in determination of thermal properties of sedimentary rocks and investigations of thermal evolution of sedimentary basins [abs.]: AAPG Bulletin, v. 67 no. 3, p. 424.

Bodner, D.P., and Sharp, J.M., Jr., 1988, Temperature variations in south Texas subsurface: AAPG Bulletin, v. 72, no. 1, p. 21-32.

Boldizar, T., 1958, Distribution of temperature in flowing wells: American Journal of Science, v. 256, April, p. 294-298.

Brennand, A.W., 1984, A new method for the analysis of static formation temperature tests, in 6th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop Proceedings: University of Auckland Geothermal Institute, p. 45-47.

Brigaud, F., Chapman, D.S., and Le Douaran, S., 1990, Estimating thermal conductivity in sedimentary basins using lithologic data and geophysical well logs: AAPG Bulletin, v. 74, no. 9, p. 1459-1477.

Brigaud, F., Vasseur, G., and Caillet, G., 1989, Use of well log data for predicting detailed in situ thermal conductivity profiles at well sites and estimation of lateral changes in main sedimentary units at basin scale, in Maury, V., and Fourmaintraux, D., eds., Rock at great depth: A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, , v. 1, p. 403-409.

Brigaud, F., Vasseur, G., and Caillet, G., 1992, Thermal state in the north Viking Graben (North Sea) determined from oil exploration well data: Geophysics, v. 57, no. 1, p. 69-88.

Bristow, Q., 1989, High resolution borehole temperature gradient logs--a possible application in earthquake prediction [abs.], in Current Activities Forum Programs with Abstracts: Geological Survey of Canada, p. 9.

Bullard, E.C., 1947, The time necessary for a bore hole to attain temperature equilibrium: Monthly Notices Royal Astronomical Society, Geophysical Supplement, v. 5, no. 5, p. 127-130.

Buntebarth, G., 1984, Geothermics, an introduction: Springer-Verlag, New York, 144 p.

Burkhardt, H., Haack, U., Han, A., Honarmand, H., Jaeger, K., Stiefel, A., Waegerle, P., and Wilhelm, H., 1989, Geothermal investigations at the KTB locations Oberfalz and Schwarzwald, in Emmermann, R., and Wohlenberg, J., eds., The German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) site-selection studies in the Oberfalz and Schwarzwald: Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 433-480.

Burrus, J., ed., 1986, Thermal modeling in sedimentary basins: Editions Technip, Paris, Collection Colloques et Seminaires No. 44, 603 p.

Cao, S., Lerche, I., and Hermanrud, 1988a, Formation temperature estimation by inversion of borehole measurements: Geophysics, v. 53, no. 7, p. 979-988.

Cao, S., Lerche, I., and Hermanrud, 1988b, Formation temperature estimation by inversion of borehole measurements, part II, Effects of fluid penetration on bottom-hole temperature recovery: Geophysics, v. 53, no. 10, p. 1347-1354.

Carlson, A.J., 1930, Geothermal conditions in oil producing areas of California, in Earth temperatures in oil fields: American Petroleum Institute Production Bulletin, no. 205, p. 109-139.

Carlson, N.R., and Barnette, J.C., 1988, Determining a reliable estimate of the geothermal gradient from shut-in temperature recordings, SPE-18144, in Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, v. omega, Formation Evaluation and Reservoir Geology: Society of Petroleum Engineers, p. 375-387.

Carstens, H., and Finstad, K.G., 1981, Geothermal gradients of the northern North Sea Basin, 59-62 N, in Illing, L.V., and Hobson, G.D., eds., Petroleum geology of the continental shelf of north-west Europe: Institute of Petroleum, London, p. 152-161.

Carvalho, H. S., and Vacquiers, V., 1977, Method for determining terrestrial heat flow in oil fields: Geophysics, v. 42, no. 3, p. 584-593.

Cermak, V., 1971, Underground temperature and inferred climatic temperature of the past millenium: Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, v. 10, p. 1-19.

Cermak, V., 1976, Paleoclimatic effect on the underground temperature and some problems of correcting heat flow, in Adam, A., ed., Geoelectric and geothermal studies (east-central Europe, Soviet Asia): Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, KAPG Geophysical Monograph, p. 59-65.

Cermak, V., 1977, Some comments on the effect of pasts climatic changes on the underground temperature field: Polish Academy of Science, Publications of the Institute of Geophysics, Series A, v. 3, no. 103, p. 45-56.

Cermak, V., 1983, The construction of heat flow density maps: Zentralblatt fur Geologie und Palaontologie, Teil 1, Heft 1/2, p. 57-69.

Cermak, V., Rybach, L., Decker, E.R., and Decker, E.R., eds., 1989, Heat flow and lithosphere structure: Tectonophysics, v. 164, no. 2-4, p. 83-376.

Cermak, V., and Sass, H., eds., 1991, Forward and inverse techniques in geothermal modelling: Tectonophysics, v. 194, no. 4, p. 307-427.

Chapman, D.S., Keho, T.H., Bauer, M.S., and Picard, M.D., 1984, Heat flow in the Uinta Basin determined from bottom hole temperature (BHT) data: Geophysics, v. 49, no. 4, p. 453-466.

Chapman, D.S., and Rybach, L., 1985, Heat flow anomalies and their interpretation: Journal of Geodynamics, v. 4, p. 3-37.

Chapman, D.S., Willett, S.D., and Clauser, C., 1991, Using thermal fields to estimate basin-scale permeabilities, in England, W.A., and Fleet, A.J., eds., Petroleum migration: Geological Society [London], Special Publication No. 59, p. 123-125.

Chapman, R.E., 1987, Fluid flow in sedimentary basins--a geologist's perspective, in Goff, J.C., and Williams, B.P.J., eds., Fluid flow in sedimentary basins and aquifers: Geological Society [London] Special Publication No. 34, p. 3-18.

Cheremenski, G.A., 1960, Time of re-establishing the thermal conditions disturbed by drilling a borehole: Bulletin (Izvestiya), Academy of Sciences, USSR, Geophysics Series, no. 12, p. 1205-1208 [translated by R.B. Mudge].

Chernayak, V.P., 1979, Method of calculating the temperature of the washing fluid in a well being drilled: Neftyanoe Khozyaistvo, v. 48, p. 19-21.

Clauser, C., 1984, A climatic correction on temperature gradients using surface-temperature series of various periods: Tectonophysics, v. 103, p. 33-46.

Collett, T.S., 1992, Geologic Comparison of the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River (USA) and Messoyakha (USSR) gas hydrate accumulations, SPE-24469: Society of Petroleum Engineers, unsolicited paper, 35 p.

Collett, T.S., and Bird, K.J., 1988, Freezing-point depression at the base of ice-bearing permafrost on the North Slope of Alaska, in Senneset, K., ed., Permafrost, Fifth International Conference Proceedings: Tapir Publishers, Trondheim, Norway, v. 1, p. 50-55.

Collett, T.S., Bird, K.J., Kvenvolden, K.A., and Magoon, L.B., 1988, Geologic interrelations relative to gas hydrates within the North Slope of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 88-389, 150 p.

Collett, T.S., Bird, K.J., Kvenvolden, K.A., and Magoon, L.B., 1989, Map [plus text] showing the depth to the base of the deepest ice-bearing permafrost as determined from well logs, North Slope, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Oil and Gas Investigations Map OM-222.

Collett, T.S., and Kvenvolden, K.A., 1989, Natural gas hydrates, in Magoon, L.B., ed., The petroleum system--status of research and methods, 1990: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1912, p. 72-73.

Conaway, J., 1988, Temperature logging as an aid to understanding groundwater flow in boreholes, paper F, in Second International Symposium on Borehole Geophysics for Minerals, Geotechnical, and Groundwater Applications Proceedings: Society of Professional Well Log Analysts, Minerals and Geotechnical Logging Society chapter-at-Large, p. 51-58.

Conaway, J.G., and Beck, A.E., 1977, Fine-scale correlation between temperature gradient logs and lithology: Geophysics, v. 42, p. 1401-1410.

Condie, K.C., 1989, Plate tectonics and crustal evolution, 3rd ed.: Pergamon Press, Oxford, 467 p.

Cooper, L.R., and Jones, C., 1959, The determination of virgin strata temperatures from observations in deep survey boreholes: Geophysical Journal, v. 2, p. 116-131.

Correia, A., Jones, F.W., and Fricker, A., 1990, Terrestrial heat-flow density estimates for the Jeanne D'Arc Basin, offshore eastern Canada: Geophysics, v. 55 (12), p. 1625-1633.

Crain, I.K., 1968, The glacial effect and the significance of continental terrestrial heat flow measurements: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 4, p. 69-72.

Davis, R.W., 1991, Integration of geological data into hydrodynamic analysis of hydrocarbon movement, in England, W.A., and Fleet, A.J., eds., Petroleum migration: Geological Society [London], Special Publication NO. 59, p. 127-135.

Da-Xin, L., 1986, Non-linear fitting method of finding equilibrium temperature from BHT data: Geothermics, v. 15, no. 5/6, p. 657-664.

De Rito, R.F., Lachenbruch, A.H., Moses, T.H., Jr., and Munroe, R.J., 1989, Heat flow and thermotectonic problems of the central Ventura Basin, southern California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 94, no. B1, January 10, p. 681-699.

DeGolyer, E., 1918, The significance of certain Mexican oil field temperatures: Economic Geology, v. 20, no. 6, p. 275-301.

Delisle, G., 1988, Engineering applications, chapter 9.4, in R. Haenel, L. Rybach, and L. Stegna, eds., Handbook of terrestrial heat-flow density determination: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 421-448.

Deming, D., 1989, Application of bottom-hole temperature corrections in geothermal studies: Geothermics, v. 18, no. 5-6, p. 775-786.

Deming, D., and Chapman, D.S., 1987, Inversion of bottom-hole temperature data--The Pineview field, Utah-Wyoming thrust belt: Geophysics, v. 53, no. 5, p. 707-720.

Deming, D., and Chapman, D.S., 1988a, Inversion of bottom-hole temperature data--the Pineview field, Utah-Wyoming thrust belt: Geophysics, v. 53, no. 5, p. 707-720.

Deming, D., and Chapman, D.S., 1988b, Heat-flow in the Utah-Wyoming thrust belt from analysis of bottom-hole temperature data measured in oil and gas wells: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 93, no. B11, November 10, p. 13,657-13,672.

Deming, D., Nunn, J.A., and Jones, S., 1989, Some problems in thermal history studies, in Nuccio, V.F., and Barker, C.E., eds., Applications of thermal maturity studies to energy exploration: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Rocky Mountain Section, p. 61-80.

Demongodin, L., Pinoteau, B., Vasseur, G., and Gable, R., 1991, Thermal conductivity and well logs--a case study in the Paris Basin: Geophysical Journal International, v. 105, no. 3, p. 675-691.

Deussen, A., and Guyod, H., 1937, Use of temperature measurements for cementation control and correlation in drill holes: AAPG Bulletin, v. 21, no. 6, p. 789-805.

Dove, R.F., and Williams, C.F., 1989, Thermal conductivity from elemental concentration logs: Nuclear Geophysics, v. 3, no. 2, p. 107-112.

Dowdle, W.L., and Cobb, W.M., 1974, Static formation temperature from well logs--an empirical method, SPE-5036: Society of Petroleum Engineers, 49th Annual Meeting [Houston], preprint. Later published in 1975: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 27(11), p. 1326-1330.

Drury, M.J., 1984, On a possible source of error in extracting equilibrium formation temperatures from borehole BHT data: Geothermics, v. 13, no. 3, p. 175-180.

Drury, M.J., 1989, Fluid flow in crystalline crust--detecting fractures by temperature logs, in Beck, A.E., Garven, G., Stegna, L., eds., Hydrogeological regimes and their subsurface thermal effects: American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph 47, p. 129-135.

Drury, M.J., Jessop, A.M., and Lewis, T.J., 1984, The detection of groundwater flow by precise temperature measurements in boreholes: Geothermics, v. 13, no. 3, p. 163-174.

Edwardson, M.J., Girner, H.M., Parkison, H.R., Williams, C.D., and Matthews, C.S., 1962, Calculation of formation temperature disturbances caused by mud circulation: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 14, no. 4, p. 416-426.

Eggelston, R.E., and Reiter, M., 1984, Terrestrial heat-flow estimates from petroleum bottom-hole temperature data in the Colorado Plateau and the eastern Basin and Range Province: GSA Bulletin, v. 95, no. 9, p. 1027-1034.

Evans, T.R., 1977, Thermal properties of North Sea rocks: The Log Analyst, v. 18, no. 2, p. 3-12.

Evans, T.R., and Coleman, N.C., 1974, North Sea geothermal gradients: Nature, v. 247, January 4, p. 28-30.

Fertl, W.H., Chilingarian, G.V., and Yen, T.F., 1986, Determination of true static formation temperature from well logs: Energy Sources, v. 8(2/3), p. 277-290.

Fertl, W.H., and Leach, W.G., 1990, Formation temperature and formation pressure affect the oil and gas distribution in Tertiary Gulf Coast sediments: Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, v. 40, p. 205-215.

Fertl, W.H., and Overton, H., 1982, Formation evaluation, chapter 8, in Edwards, L.M., Chilingar, G.V., Rieke, H.H., III, and Fertl, W.H., eds., Handbook of geothermal energy: Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, p. 326-425.

Fertl, W.H., and Wichmann, P.A., 1977, How to determine static BHT from well log data: World Oil, v. 184, no. 1, January, p. 105-106.

Fialka, B.N., Pyszka, M.H., and Chhina, H.S., 1990, The evaluation of temperature logging in thermal application, SPE-20084, in SPE California Regional Meeting Proceedings: Society of Petroleum Engineers, p. 571-580.

Force, E.R., Eidel, J.J., and Maynard, J.B., eds., 1991, Sedimentary and diagenetic mineral deposits--a basin analysis approach to exploration: Society of Economic Geologists, Reviews in Economic Geology v. 5, 216 p.

Gable, R., Morin, R.H., and Becker, K., 1989, Geothermal state of hole 504B; ODP Leg 111 overview, chapter 8, in Becker, K., Sakai, H., et al., eds., Proceeding of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, v. 111: Texas A&M University, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, p. 87-96.

Gallagher, K., 1990, Some strategies for estimating present day heat flow from exploration wells, with examples: Exploration Geophysics, v. 21, p. 145-159.

Garven, G., 1986, Quantitative models for stratabound ore genesis in sedimentary basins, in Hitchon, B., Bachu, S., and Sauveplane, C.M., eds., Hydrogeology of sedimentary basins--application to exploration and exploitation [3rd Canadian/American conference on hydrogeology Proceedings]: National Water Well Association, Dublin, Ohio, p. 69-74.

George, E.R., 1970, The use of subsurface temperature to detect geopressure, in Ferrell, R.E., Jr., and Hise, B.R., eds., 2nd Symposium on Abnormal Subsurface Pressure Proceedings: Louisiana State University, p. 5-34.

Gosold, W.D., Jr., 1991, Subsurface temperatures in the northern Great Plains, chapter 27, in Slemmons, D.B., Engdahl, E.R., Zoback M.D., and Blackwell, D.D., eds., Neotectonics of North America: Geological Society of America, Decade Map Volume 1, p. 467-472.

Gosnold, W.D., and Bauer, M., 1991, Analysis of the climate record in borehole temperatures [abs.]: EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 72, no. 17 supplement, p. 269. A similar abstract published in Abstracts with Programs 1991 Annual Meeting: Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, p. A341.

Goss, R., Coombs, J., and Timur, A., 1975, Prediction of thermal conductivity in rocks from other physical parameters and from standard geophysical well logs, paper MM, in 16th Annual Logging Symposium Transactions: Society of Professional Well Log Analysts, 21 p. Also published in 1976, as Thermal conductivity measurement and prediction from geophysical well log parameters with borehole application, in 2nd United Nations Symposium on the Development and Use of Geothermal Resources Proceedings: U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., v. 2, p. 1019-1027.

Gretener, P.E., 1981, Geothermics--Using temperature in hydrocarbon exploration: AAPG Education Course Note Series No. 17, 156 p.

Grisafi, T.W., Rieke, H.H., III, and Skidmore, D.R., 1974, Approximation of geothermal gradients in northern West Virginia using bottom-hole temperatures from electric logs: AAPG Bulletin, v. 58, no. 2, p. 321-323.

Guyod, H. 1936, Location of water flows in drill holes by temperature measurements: Oil Weekly, v. 82, no. 3, June 29, p. 19-26.

Guyod, H., 1946, Temperature well logging [a seven-part series]: Oil Weekly, v. 123, no. 8-11, (October 21, 28; November 4, 11), v. 124, no. 1-3, (December 2, 9, 16).

Haenel, R., Rybach, L., and Stegna, eds., 1988, Handbook of Terrestrial heat-flow density determinations: Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, 382. p.

Hagedorn, D.N., 1985, The calculation of synthetic thermal conductivity logs from conventional geophysical well logs: Southern Methodist University, unpublished M.S. thesis, 110 p.

Hall, A.D., and Thomas-Betts, A., 1989, Determination of paleoclimate from borehole temperature logs [abs.]: Geophysical Journal [Royal Astronomical Society], v. 96, no. 3, p. 601.

Hallenburg, J.K., 1984, Geophysical logging for mineral and engineering applications: PennWell Books, Tulsa, 254 p.

Harrison, W.D., 1991, Permafrost response to surface temperature change and its implications for the 40,000-year surface temperature history at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 96, B1, January 10, p. 683-695.

Harper, M.L., 1971, Approximate geothermal gradients in the North Sea basin: Nature, v. 230, March 26, p. 235-236.

Hasan, A.R., and Kabir, C.S., 1991a, Heat transfer during two-phase flow in wellbores, part I, Formation temperature, SPE-22866, in Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, v. pi, Production Engineering: Society of Petroleum Engineers, p. 469-478.

Hasan, A.R., and Kabir, C.S., 1991b, Heat transfer during two-phase flow in wellbores, part II, Wellbore fluid temperature, SPE-22948, in Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, v. pi, Production Engineering: Society of Petroleum Engineers, p. 695-708.

Hasan, A.R., and Kabir, C.S., 1992, Determination of static reservoir temperature from transient data following mud circulation, SPE-24085, in Western Regional Meeting Proceedings: Society of Petroleum Engineers, p. 565-574.

Heald, K.C., 1930, The study of earth temperatures in oil fields on anticlinal structure, in Earth temperatures in oil fields: American Petroleum Institute Production Bulletin, no. 205, p. 1-8.

Hermanrud, C., 1986, On the importance to the petroleum generation of heating effects from compaction-derived water--an example from the northern North Sea, in Burris, J., ed., Thermal modeling in sedimentary basins: Editions Technip, Paris, Collection Colloques et Sminaires No. 44, p. 247-269.

Hermanrud, C., Cao, S., and Lerche, I., 1990, Estimates of virgin rock temperature derived from BHT (bottom-hole temperature) measurements--bias and error: Geophysics, v. 55(7), p. 924-931.

Hermanrud, C., Lerche, I., and Meisingset, K.K., 1991, Determination of virgin rock temperature from drillstem tests, SPE-19464: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 43, no 9, p. 1126-1131.

Hermanrud, C., and Shen, P.Y., 1989, Virgin rock temperatures from well logs; accuracy analysis for some advanced inversion models: Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, v. 3(4), January, p. 321-332.

Hill, A.D., 1990, Temperature logging, chapter 4, in Production logging--theoretical and interpretative elements: Society of Petroleum Engineers Memoir No. 14, p. 19-36.

Hitchon, B., 1984, Geothermal gradients, hydrodynamics, and hydrocarbon occurrences, Alberta, Canada: AAPG Bulletin, v. 68, no. 6, p. 713-743.

Hitchon, B., Bachu, S., and Sauveplane, C.M., eds., 1986, Hydrogeology of sedimentary basins--application to exploration and exploitation [3rd Canadian/American conference on hydrogeology Proceedings]: National Water Well Association, Dublin, Ohio, 270 p.

Hitchon, B., Bachu, S., Sauveplane, C.M., Lytviak, A.T., 1987, Dynamic basin analysis--an integrated approach with large data bases, in Goff, J.C., and Williams, B.P.J., eds., Fluid Flow in sedimentary basins and aquifers: Geological Society [London] Special Publication No. 34, p. 31-44.

Hnatiuk, J., and Randall, A.G., 1977, Determination of permafrost thickness in wells in northern Canada: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 14, no. 3, p. 375-383.

Hoang, V.T., and Somerton, W.H., 1981, Effect of variable thermal conductivity of the formations on the fluid temperature distribution in the wellbore, paper L, in 22nd Annual Logging Symposium Transactions: Society of Professional Well Log Analysts, 24 p.

Holmes, C.S., and Swift, S.C., 1970, Calculation of circulating mud temperatures: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 22, no. 6, p. 670-674.

Houseman, G.A., Cull, J.P., Muir, P.M., and Paterson, H.L., 1989, Geothermal signatures and uranium ore deposits on the Stuart shelf of South Australia: Geophysics, v. 54, no. 2, p. 158-170.

Hyndman, R.D., Langseth, M.G., and von Herzen, R.P., 1984, A review of Deep Sea Drilling Project geothermal measurements through Leg 71, chapter 16, in Hyndman, R.D., Salisbury, M.H., et al., eds., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, v. 78B: U.S. Government Printing Office, p. 813-823.

Jaeger, J.C., 1961, The effect of the drilling fluid on temperatures measured in boreholes: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 66, no. 2, p. 563-569.

Jarrell, M.D., and Lyle, R., 1987, Application of the temperature survey in demonstrating the mechanical integrity of injection wells, in International symposium on Subsurface Injection of Oilfield Brine Proceedings: Underground Injection Practices Council, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, p. 22-62.

Jessop, A.M., ed., 1977, Heat flow and geodynamics: Tectonophysics, v. 41, no. 1/3, p. 1-249.

Jessop, A.M., 1987, Estimation of lateral water flow in an aquifer by thermal logging: Geothermics, v. 16, no. 2, p. 117-126.

Jessop, A.M., 1989, Hydrological distortion of heat flow in sedimentary basins: Tectonophysics, v. 164, no. 2-4, p. 211-218.

Jessop, A.M., 1990a, Thermal geophysics: Elsevier, Amsterdam, Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics No. 17, 306 p.

Jessop, A., 1990b, Geothermal evidence of climatic change, report AGU 1989 fall meeting: EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 71, no. 15, April 10, p. 390-391.

Jessop, A.M., and Judge, A.S., 1975, Temperature measurement in boreholes for the mining industry, in Dyck, A.V., ed., Borehole geophysics applied to metallic mineral prospecting--a review: Canada Geological Survey Paper 75-31, 55-65.

Johnson, J., and Adams, L.H., 1916, On the measurement of temperature in boreholes: Economic Geology, v. 11, no. 8, p. 6741-762.

Jones, F.W., 1991, The thermal state of the Williston Basin in Canada, in Christopher, J.E., and Haidl, F.M., eds., 6th International Williston Basin symposium: Saskatchewan Geological Society, Special Publication No. 11, p. 216-221.

Jones, F.W., Lam, H.L., and Majorowicz, J.A., 1985, Temperature distributions at the Paleozoic and Precambrian surfaces and their implications for geothermal energy recovery in Alberta: Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 22, p. 1774-1780.

Jones, F.W., and Majorowicz, J.A., 1987, Some aspects of the thermal regime and hydrodynamics of the western Canadian sedimentary basin, in Goff, J.C., and Williams, B.P.J., eds., Fluid flow in sedimentary basins and aquifers: Geological Society [London] Special Publication No. 34, p. 79-85.

Jones, F.W., Majorowicz, J.A., and Embry, A.F., 1989, A heat flow profile across the Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic Islands: Geophysics, v. 54, no. 2, p. 171-180.

Jones, F.W., Majorowicz, J.A., Linville, A., and Osadetz, K.G., 1986, The relationship of hydrocarbon occurrences to geothermal gradients and time-temperature indices in Mesozoic formations of southern Alberta: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 34(2), June, p. 226-239.

Jones, P.H., 1975, Geothermal and hydrocarbon regimes, northern Gulf of Mexico basin, in Dorfman, M.H., and Deller, R.W., eds., First Geopressured Geothermal Energy Conference Proceedings: University of Texas at Austin, Center for Energy Studies, p. 15-89.

Jones, R.R., 1986, A novel economical approach for accurate real-time measurement of wellbore temperatures, SPE-15577: Society of Petroleum Engineers, presented at Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, preprint, 8 p.

Jorden, J.R., and Campbell, F.L., 1984, Temperature logging, chapter 5, in Well logging I--Rock properties, borehole environment, mud and temperature logging: Society of Petroleum Engineers, Monograph Series No. 9, p. 127-146.

Joyner, H.D., 1975, A correlation of electric-log-indicated reservoir temperature with actual reservoir temperature - southwest Louisiana: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 27, no. 2, p. 181-182.

Judge, A.S., and Beck, A.E., 1973, Analysis of heat-flow data--several boreholes in a sedimentary basin: Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 10, p. 1494-1507.

Jutten, J., and Morriss, S.L., 1990, Cement job evaluation, chapter 16, in Nelson, E.B., ed., Well cementing: Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 16-1 to 16-44.

Kabinoff, B., Ekstrand, B.B., Shultz, S., Tilghman, S.E., and Fuller, D., 1992, Determining accurate bottomhole circulating temperture for optimum cement slurry design, SPE-24048, in Western Regional Meeting Proceedings: Society of Petroleum Engineers, p. 229-236.

Kappelmeyer, O., and Haenel, R., 1974, Geothermics; with special reference to applications: Gebruder Borntraeger, Berlin, Geoexploration Monographs, Series 1, No. 4, 238 p.

Kayal, J.R., 1981, Correlation of T-log and E-log in coal bearing formations: Pure and Applied Geophysics, v. 119, p. 349-355.

Kayal, J.R., and Christoffel, D.A., 1982, Relationship between electrical and thermal resistivities for differing grades of coals: Geophysics, v. 47, no. 1, p. 127-129.

Kearey, P., and Vine, F.J., 1990, Global tectonics: Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 302 p.

Kehle, R.O., Schoeppel, R.J., and Deford, R.K., 1971, The AAPG geothermal survey of North America [U.N. symposium on the development and utilization of geothermal resources (Pisa, Italy)]: Geothermics, special issue no. 2, part 1, p. 358-367.

Keller, H.H., and Couch, E.J., 1968, Well cooling by downhole circulation of water: Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, v. 8, no. 4, p. 405-412.

Keller, H.H., Couch, E.J., and Berry, P.M., 1973, Temperature distribution in circulating mud columns: Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, v. 13, no. 1, p. 23-30.

Keys, W.S., 1990, Borehole geophysics applied to groundwater investigations: U.S. Geological Survey, Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, Book 2, Collection of Environmental Data, Chapter E2, 150 p.

Klein, G. deV., 1991, Basin analysis and sedimentary process, part II (chapters 3-8), in Force, E.R., Eidel, J.J., and Maynard, B., Sedimentary and diagenetic mineral deposits--a basin analysis approach to exploration: Society of Economic Geologists, Review in Economic Geology, v. 5, p. 21-130.

Kritikos, W.P., and Kutasov, I.M., 1988, Two-point method for determination of undisturbed reservoir temperature: SPE-15204: SPE Formation Evaluation, v. v. 3, no. 1, p. 222-226.

Kukkonen, I.T., 1988, Terrestrial heat flow and groundwater circulation in the bedrock in the central Baltic Shield: Tectonophysics, v. 156, no. 1-2, p. 59-74.

Kumar, M.B., 1989, Geothermal patterns of Louisiana salt domes: Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, v. 29, p. 159-170.

Kutasov, I.M., 1989, Method trims data for calculating formation temperature: Oil and Gas Journal, v. 87, no. 28, July 10, p. 94-95.

Kutasov, I.M., Caruthers, R.M., Targhi, A.K., and Chaaban, H.M., 1988, Prediction of downhole circulating and shut-in temperatures: Geothermics, v. 17, no. 4, p. 607-618. Condensed version published in 1988, as Predicting shut-in BH temperature: Oil and Gas Journal, v. 86, no. 8, February 22, p. 42-43.

Kvenvolden, K., and Cooper, A.K., 1987, Natural gas hydrates of the offshore Circum-Pacific margin--a future energy resource?, chapter 24, in Horn, M.K., ed., Transactions of the Fourth Circum-Pacific Energy and Mineral Resource Conference: Circum-Pacific Energy and Mineral Resource Conference, p. 285-297.

Kvenvolden, K., and Grantz, A., 1990, Gas hydrates of the Arctic Ocean region, in Grantz, A., Johnson, L, and Sweeney, J.F., eds., The Arctic Ocean region: Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, The Geology of North America, v. L, p. 539-549.

Lachenbruch, A.H., and Brewer, M.C., 1959, Dissipation of the temperature effect of drilling a well in Arctic Alaska: U..S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1083-C, p. 73-109.

Lachenbruch, A.H., and Marshall, B.V., 1986, Changing climate--geothermal evidence from permafrost in the Alaskan Arctic: Science, v. 234, November 7, 689-696.

Lachenbruch, A.H., and Sass, J.H., 1988, The stress heat-flow paradox and thermal results from Cajon Pass: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 15, no. 9, August Supplement, p. 981-984.

Lachenbruch, A.H., and Sass, J.H., 1992, Heat flow from Cajon Pass, fault strength, and tectonic implications: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 97, no. B4, p. 4995-5015.

Lachenbruch, A.H., Sass, J.H., Marshall, B.V., and Moses, T.H., Jr., 1982, Permafrost, heat flow, and the geothermal regime at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 87, no. B11, November 10, p. 9301-9316.

Lam, H.L., and Jones, F.W., 1982, A statistical analysis of bottom-hole temperature data in the Hinton area of west-central Alberta: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 19, no. 4, p. 755-766.

Lam, H.L., and Jones, F.W., 1984a, Geothermal gradients in the Steen River area of northwestern Alberta: Tectonophysics, v. 103, no. 1-4, p. 263-272

Lam, H.L., and Jones, F.W., 1984b, Geothermal gradients of Alberta in western Canada: Geothermics, v. 13, no. 3, p. 181-192.

Lam, H.L., and Jones, F., 1986, An investigation of the potential for geothermal energy recovery in the Calgary area in southern Alberta, Canada, using petroleum exploration data: Geophysics, v. 51, no. 8, p. 1661-1670.

Lam, H.L., Jones, F.W., and Majorowicz, J.A., 1985, A statistical analysis of bottom-hole temperature data in southern Alberta: Geophysics, v. 50, no. 4, p. 677-684.

Lane, A.C., 1923, Geotherms of Lake Superior copper country: GSA Bulletin, v. 34, December 20, p. 703-720.

Law, B.E., Nuccio, V.F., and Barker, C.E., 1989, Kinky vitrinite reflectance well profiles--evidence of paleopore pressure in low-permeability, gas-bearing sequences in Rocky Mountain foreland basins: AAPG Bulletin, v. 73, no. 8, p. 999-1010.

Leblanc, Y., Lam, H-L., Pascoe, L.J., and Jones, F.W., 1982, A comparison of two methods of estimating static formation temperature from well logs: Geophysical Prospecting, v. 30, p. 348-357.

Lee, T-C., 1982, Estimation of formation temperature and thermal property from dissipation of heat generated by drilling: Geophysics, v. 47, no. 11, p. 1577-1584.

Leonardon, E.G., 1936, The economic utility of thermometric measurements in drill holes in connection with drilling and cementing problems: Geophysics, v. 1, no. 1, p. 115-126.

Lerche, I., 1990a, Basin analysis--quantitative methods, v. 1: Academic Press, San Diego, California, 562 p.

Lerche, I., 1990b, Basin analysis--quantitative methods, v. 2: Academic Press, San Diego, California, 570 p.

Lesem, I.B., et al., 1957, A method of calculating the distribution of temperature in flowing gas wells: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 9, no. 6, p. 169-176.

Lewis, C.R., and Rose, S.C., 1970, A theory relating high temperatures and overpressures, SPE-2564: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 22, no. 1, p. 11-16.

Lopatin, N.V., Temperature and geologic time as factors in coalification: Akademiya nauk, SSSR, series geologicheskaya, Izvestiya, no. 3, p. 95-106, translated by N.H. Bostick [unpublished].

Lucazeau, F., and Ben Dhia, H., 1989, Preliminary heat-flow density data from Tunesia and the Pelagian Sea: Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 26(5), p. 993-1000.

Luheshi, M.N., 1983, Estimation of formation temperature from borehole measurements: Geophysical Journal [Royal Astronomical Society], v. 74, p. 747-776.

Lysne, P.C., Worthington, P.F., and Pyle, T.E., 1990, Scientific logging in high-temperature boreholes: Scientific Drilling, v. 1, no. 6, p. 296-299.

Majorowicz, J.A., 1989, The controversy over the significance of the hydrodynamic effect on heat flow in the Prairies Basin, in Beck, A.E., Garven, G., Stegna, L., eds., Hydrogeological regimes and their subsurface thermal effects: American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph 47, p. 101-105.

Majorowicz, J.A., and Jessop, A.M., 1981, Present heat flow and preliminary paelogeothermal history of the central Prairies Basin, Canada: Geothermics, v. 10, no. 2, p. 81-93.

Majorowicz, J.A., Jones, F.W., Ertman, M.E., Linville, A., and Osadetz, K., 1986, Heat flow in the Edmonton-Cold Lake region of the western Canadian sedimentary basin and the influence of fluid flow, in Hitchon, B., Bachu, S., and Sauveplane, eds., Hydrogeology of sedimentary basin--application to exploration and exploitation [3rd Canadian/American Conference on Hydrogeology Proceedings]: National Water Well Association, Dublin OH, p. 151-158.

Majorowicz, J.A., Jones, F.W., and Jessop, A.M., 1988, Preliminary geothermics of the sedimentary basins in the Yukon and Northwest Territories (60N-70N)--Estimates from petroleum bottom-hole temperature data: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 36(1), March, p. 39-51.

Majorowicz, J.A., Jones, F.W., and Judge, A.S., 1990, Deep subpermafrost thermal regime in the Mackenzie Delta basin, northern Canada--analysis from petroleum bottom-hole temperature data: Geophysics, v. 55, no. 3, p. 362-371.

Majorowicz, J.A. Jones, F.W., Lam, H.L., and Jessop, A.M., 1984, The variability of heat flow both regional and with depth in southern Alberta, Canada--effect of groundwater flow?: Tectonophysics, v. 106, p. 1-29.

Majorowicz, J.A., Jones, F.W., Lam, H.L., and Jessop, A.M., 1985, Terrestrial heat flow and geothermal gradients in relation to hydrodynamics in the Alberta Basin, Canada: Journal of Geodynamics, v. 4, no. 1-4, p. 265-283.

Majorowicz, J.A., Jones, F.W., and Osadetz, K.G., 1988, Heat flow environment of the electrical conductivity anomalies in the Williston Basin, and occurrence of hydrocarbons: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 36, no. 1, March, p. 86-90.

Manetti, G., 1973, Attainment of temperature equilibrium in holes during drilling: Geothermics, v. 2, no. 3/4, p. 94-100.

Mathews, M., 1982, Temperature measurements, chapter 5, introduction, in Geothermal Log Interpretation Handbook: Society of Professional Well Log Analysts, p. V-1.

McConnell, C.L., 1985, Salinity and temperature anomalies over structural oil fields, Carter County, Oklahoma: AAPG Bulletin, v. 69, no. 5, p. 781-787.

McCullough, T.H., and Naeser, N.D., 1989, Thermal history of sedimentary basins--introduction and overview, chapter 1, in Naeser, N.D., and McCullough, T.H., eds., Thermal history of sedimentary basins; methods and case histories: Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 1-11.

McGee, H.W., Meyer, H.J., and Pringle, T.R., 1989 Shallow geothermal anomalies overlying deeper oil and gas deposits in Rocky Mountain region: AAPG Bulletin, v. 73, no. 5, p. 576-597.

McKinley, R.M., 1989, Temperature and noise logging for noninjection related fluid movement, in International Symposium on Class I and II Well Technology [Dallas, Texas, May 9-11] Proceedings: Underground Injection Practices Council, Oklahoma City, OK, p. 45-63.

McPherson, B.J., and Chapman, D.S., 1991, Using BHT (bottom hole temperature) data to estimate temperature fields within a sedimentary basin--a comparison of geophysical inversion methods [abs.], in AGU 1991 Fall Meeting Program & Abstracts: EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 72, no. 44, October 29 supplement, p. 504.

Middleton, M.F., 1979, A model for bottom-hole temperature stabilization: Geophysics, v. 44, no. 8, p. 1458-1462.

Middleton, M.F., 1982, Bottom-hole temperature stabilization with continued circulation of drilling mud: Geophysics, v. 47, no. 12, p. 1716-1723.

Mongelli, F., and Haenel, R., 1988, Thermal exploration methods, chapter 9.2, in R. Haenel, L. Rybach, and L. Stegna, eds., Handbook of terrestrial heat-flow density determination: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 353-390.

Mongelli, F., and Zito, G., 1988, Effect of recent temperature change on shallow geothermal measurements: Geothermics, v. 17, no. 5/6, p. 765-776.

Morgan, P., and Gosnold, W.D., 1989, Heat flow and thermal regimes in the continental United States, in Pakiser, L.,C., and Mooney, W.D., eds., Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172, p. 493-522.

Moss, J.T., and White, P.D., 1959, How to calculate temperature profiles in water-injection wells: Oil and Gas Journal, v. 57, no. 11, March 9, p. 174.

Murphy, H.D., and, Lawton, H.D., 1977, Downhole measurements of thermal conductivity in geothermal reservoirs: Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, v. 99, series J, no. 4, p. 607-611.

Mwenifumbo, C.J., 1989, The use of temperature logs in coal-seam mapping [abs.], in Langenberg, W., compiler, Advances in Western Canadian Coal Geoscience, forum proceedings: Alberta Research Council Information Series No. 103, p. 365.

Mwenifumbo, C.J., 1991 Temperature logging in mineral deposits [abs.]: The Log Analyst, v. 32, no. 4, p. 387. Complete paper in press in 4th MGLS International Symposium Proceedings: Society of Professional Well Log Analysts, Minerals and Geotechnical Logging Society, Chapter-at-Large.

Myer, H.J., and McGee, H.G., 1985, Oil and gas fields accompanied by geothermal anomalies in Rocky Mountain region: AAPG Bulletin, v. 69, no. 6, p. 933-945.

Newmark, R.L., Kasameyer, P.W., and Younker, L.W., 1988, Shallow drilling in the Salton Sea region--the thermal anomaly: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 93, no. B11, November 10, p. 13,005-13,023.

Nielsen, S.B., 1986, The continuous temperature log; method and applications: University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 247 p.

Nielsen, S.B., Balling, N., and Christiansen, H.S., 1990, Formation temperatures determined from stochastic inversion of borehole observations: Geophysical Journal International, v. 101(3), p. 581-590.

Nielsen, S.B., and Beck, A.E., 1989, Heat flow density values and paleoclimate determined from stochastic inversion of four temperature-depth profiles from the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield: Tectonophysics, v. 164, p. 345-359.

Nobes, D.C., Mienert, J., Mwenifumbo, C.J., and Blangy, J.P., 1991, An estimate of heat flow on the Meteor Rise, site 704, chapter 3, in Ciesielski, P.F., Kristoffersen, Y., et al., eds. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, v. 114: Texas A&M University, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, Texas, p. 39-45. Also published in 1991, An estimate of the heat flow on the Meteor Rise, subantarctic South Atlantic: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 96, no. B4, April 10, p. 5947-5953.

Nuccio, V.F., and Barker, C.E., eds., 1990, Applications of thermal maturity studies to energy exploration: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Rocky Mountain Section, 174 p.

O'Brien, J.J., and Lerche, I., 1984, The influence of salt domes on paleotemperature distributions: Geophysics, v. 49, no. 11, p. 2032-2043.

O'Brien, J.J., and Lerche, I., 1988, Impact of heat flux anomalies around salt diapirs and salt sheets in the Gulf Coast on hydrocarbon maturity--models and observations: Transactions of the Gulf Coasts Association of Geological Societies, v. 38, p. 231-245.

Oxburgh, E.R., and Andrews-Speed, C.P., 1981, Temperature, thermal gradients and heat flow in the southwestern North Sea, in Illing, L.V., and Hobson, G.D., Petroleum geology of the continental shelf of north-west Europe: Institute of Petroleum, London, p. 141-151.

Oxburgh, E.R., Richardson, S.W., Turcotte, D.L., and Hsui, A., 1972, Equilibrium borehole temperatures from observation of thermal transients during drilling: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 14, p. 47-49.

Parasnis, D.S., 1971, Temperature extrapolation to infinite time: Geophysical Prospecting, v. 19, p. 612-614.

Pascal, H., Beach, R.D.W., and Jones, F.W., 1989, In situ thermal conductivity and equilibrium formation temperature from circulation flow rate variations: Pure and Applied Geophysics, v. 130, no. 4, p. 687-697.

Pfeiffer, D.s., and Sharp, J.M., Jr., 1989, Subsurface temperature distributions in south Texas: Transactions Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, v. 39, p. 231-245.

Pilkington, P.E., 1988, Uses of pressure and temperature data in exploration and new developments in overpressure detection: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 40, no. 5, p. 543-549.

Pilkington, P.E., 1992, Cement evaluation--past, present, and future, SPE-20314, Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 44, no. 2, p. 132-140.

Plisga, G.J., 1987, Temperature in wells, chapter 31, in Bradley, H.B., Petroleum engineering handbook: Society of Petroleum Engineers, p. 31-1--31-7.

Pollack, H.N., and Clow, G.D., presiding, 1990, Climate change inferred from borehole temperature: EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 71, no. 43, October 23, p. 1596-1597 [contains 8 meeting abstracts].

Pollack, H.N., and Sass, J.H., 1988, Thermal regime of the lithosphere, chapter 8.1, in R. Haenel, L. Rybach, and L. Stegna, eds., Handbook of terrestrial heat-flow density determination: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 301-308.

Ponzini, G., Crosta, and Giudici, M., 1989, Identification of thermal conductivities by temperature gradient profiles--one-dimensional steady flow: Geophysics, v. 54, no. 5, p. 643-653.

Ramey, H.J., 1962, Wellbore heat transmission: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 14, no. 4, p. 427-435.

Raymond, L.R., 1969, Temperature distribution in a circulation drilling fluid: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 21, no. 3, p. 333-341.

Reiter, M., Eggleston, R.E., Broadwell, B.R., and Minier, J., 1986, Estimates of terrestrial heat flow from deep petroleum tests along the Rio Grand rift in central and southern New Mexico: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 91, no. B6, May 10, p. 6225-6245.

Reiter, M., Mansure, A.J., and Peterson, B.K., 1980, Precision continuous temperature logging and comparison with other types of logs: Geophysics, v. 45, no. 12, p. 1857-1868.

Reiter, M., and Tovar, J.C., 1982, Estimates of terrestrial heat flow in northern Chihuahua, Mexico, based upon petroleum bottom-hole temperatures: GSA Bulletin, v. 93, p. 613-624.

Ribeiro, F.B., 1987, Estimation of formation temperature and heat flow from measurements made in shallow water wells: Revista Brasileira de Geofisica, v. 5, p. 117-126.

Ribeiro, F.B., and Hamza, V.M., 1986, Stabilization of bottom-hole temperature in the presence of formation fluid flows: Geophysics, v. 51, no. 2, p. 410-413.

Roberts, W.H., III, 1981, Some uses of temperature data in petroleum exploration, in Gottlieb, B.M., eds., Unconventional methods in exploration for petroleum and natural gas, II: Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas, Institute for the Study of Earth and Man, p. 8-49.

Roberts, W.H., III, 1986, Deep water discharge--key to hydrocarbon and mineral deposits, in Hitchon, B., Bachu, S., and Sauveplane, C.M., eds., Hydrogeology of sedimentary basins--application to exploration and exploitation [3rd Canadian/American conference on hydrogeology Proceedings]: National Water Well Association, Dublin, Ohio, p. 42-68.

Ross, E.W., Vagelatos, N., Dickerson, J.M., and Nguyen, V., 1982, Nuclear logging and geothermal log interpretation--formation temperature sonde evaluation: Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-9159-MS, 49 p.

Roux, B., Sanyal, S.K., and Brown, S.L., 1980, An improved approach to estimating true reservoir temperature from transient temperature data, SPE-8888: Society of Petroleum Engineers, California Regional Meeting preprint, 8 p.

Rybach, L., ed., 1985, Heat flow and geothermal processes: Journal of Geodynamics, v. 4, no. 1-4, 349 p.

Rybach, L., 1989, Heat flow techniques in geothermal exploration: First Break, v. 7 no. 1, p. 9-16.

Sagar, R.K., Dotty, D.R., and Schmidt, Z., 1989, Predicting temperature profiles in a flowing well, SPE-19702, in Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, v. pi, Production Operations and Engineering: Society of Petroleum Engineers, p. 21-34.

Sasaki, A., 1985, An empirical method and a few problems for estimating formation temperatures from bottom-hole temperatures recorded during logging (a revised edition): Journal of the Japanese Association of Petroleum Technology, v. 50, no. 1, p. 17 [English summary].

Sasaki, A., 1987, A reliability of Horner-plot method for estimating static formation temperature from well log data: Journal of the Japanese Association for Petroleum Technology, v. 52, no. 3, p. 23 [English summary].

Sass, J.H., Lachenbruch, A.H., Moses, T.H., Jr., and Morgan, P., 1992, Heat flow from a scientific research well at Cajon Pass, California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 97, no. B4, 5017-5030.

Sass, J.H., Priest, S.S., Duda, L.E., Carson, C.C., Hendricks, J.D., and Robinson, L.C., 1988, Thermal regime of the State 2-14 well, Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 93, no. B11, November 10, p. 12,995-13,004.

Sawkins, F.J., 1990, Metal deposits in relation to plate tectonics, 2nd ed.: Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Minerals and Rocks Series, v. 17, 461 p.

Schlumberger, 1989, Log interpretation charts: Schlumberger Educational Services, Houston, TX, p. 2-5.

Schlumberger, M., Doll, H.G., and A.A. Perebinossoff, 1937, Temperature measurements in oil wells: Journal of the Institute of Petroleum Technologists, v. 23, 25 p.

Schoeppel, R.J., and Gilarranz, S., 1966, Use of well log temperatures to evaluate regional geothermal gradients, SPE-1297: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 18, no. 6, p. 667-673.

Sclater, J.G., Jaupart, C., and Galson, D., 1980, The heat flow through oceanic and continental crust and the heat loss of the earth: Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, v. 18, no. 1, p. 269-311.

Scott, J.H., Petersen, J.K., Osterkamp, T.E., and Kawasaki, K., 1985, Interpretation of geophysical well logs in permafrost: University of Alaska, Geophysical Institute, Report No. UAG-R(303), 125 p.

Sekiguchi, K., 1984, A method for determining terrestrial heat flow in oil basinal areas: Tectonophysics, v. 103, p. 67-79.

Selig, F., and Wallick, G.C., 1966, Temperature distribution in salt domes and surrounding sediments: Geophysics, v. 31, p. 346-361.

Seto, A.C., and Bharatha, S., 1991, Thermal conductivity estimation from temperature logs, SPE-21542, in SPE International Thermal Operations Symposium Proceedings: Society of Petroleum Engineers, p. 179-186.

Seyer, W., and Landen, I., 1990, Estimation of bottomhole temperature from surface condition in cyclic steam injection, paper CIM/SPE 90-110, in CIM/SPE International Technical Meeting Proceedings: Petroleum Society CIM [Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy] v. 3, 11 p.

Sharp, J.M., Jr., and Kyle, J.R., 1988, The role of ground-water processes in the formation of ore deposits, in Back, W., Rosenshein, J.S., and Seaber, P.R., eds., Hydrogeology: Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, The Geology of North America, v. O-2, p. 461-483.

Shen, P.Y., and Beck, A.E., 1983, Determination of surface temperature history from borehole temperature gradients: Journal of Geophysical Research v. 88, B9, September 10, p. 7485-7493.

Shen, P.Y., and Beck, A.E., 1986, Stabilization of bottom hole temperature with finite circulation time and fluid flow: Geophysical Journal [Royal Astronomical Society], v. 86, p. 63-90.

Shipboard Scientific Party, 1992, Temperature measurements, site 504, in Becker, K., Foss, G., et al., eds. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Initial Reports, v. 137: Texas A&M University, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, p. 42-47.

Shiu, K.C., and Begs, H.D., 1980, Predicting temperatures in flowing oil wells: Journal Energy Resources Technology [Transactions ASME], v. 102, no. 1, March, p. 2-11.

Silliman, S.E., and Neuzil, C.E., 1990, Borehole determination of formation thermal conductivity using a thermal pulse from injected fluid: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 95, no. B6, June 10, 8697-8704.

Sloan, E.D., Jr., 1990, Hydrates in the earth, chapter 7, in Clathrate hydrates of natural gas: Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, p. 391-476.

Sloan, E.D., Jr., 1991, Natural gas hydrates, SPE-23562: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 43, no. 12, p. 1414-1417.

Smith, L., and Chapman, D.S., 1983, On the thermal effects of groundwater flow, part I, Regional scale systems: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 88, no. B1, January 10, p. 593-608.

Somerton, W.H., 1992, Thermal properties and temperature-related behavior of rock/fluid systems: Elsevier, Amsterdam, Developments in Petroleum Science No. 37, 250 p.

Speece, M.A., Bowen, T.D., Folcik, J.L., and Pollack, H.N., 1985, Analysis of temperatures in sedimentary basins--The Michigan Basin: Geophysics, v. 50, no. 8, p. 1318-1334.

Staub, W.P., and Treat, N.L., 1981, Analysis of bottom-hole temperature data from oil and gas wells of the Tennessee Valley region: Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, v. 5, p. 129-132.

Stegna, L., 1988, Paleogeothermics, chapter 9.3, in R. Haenel, L. Rybach, and L. Stegna, eds., Handbook of terrestrial heat-flow density determination: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 391-420.

Strong, M.M., 1933, The significance of underground temperatures, in First World Petroleum Congress Proceedings: London, v. 1, p. 124-128.

Summer, N.S., and Verosub, K.L., 1989, A low-temperature hydrothermal maturation mechanism for sedimentary basins associated with volcanic rocks, in Beck, A.E., Garven, G., Stegna, L., eds., Hydrogeological regimes and their subsurface thermal effects: American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph 47, p. 129-136.

Summers, W.K., 1972, Approximation of thermal gradient in southeastern New Mexico using bottom-hole temperatures from electric logs: AAPG Bulletin, v. 56, no. 10, p. 2072-2074.

Sump, G.D., and Williams, B.B., 1973, Prediction of wellbore temperatures during mud circulation and cementing operations: Journal of Engineering for Industry, v. 95, series B, no. 4, November, 1083-1092.

Sverjensky, D.A., 1987, The role of migrating oil field brines in sedimentary-hosted Cu-rich deposits: Economic Geology, v. 82, p. 1130-1141.

Swift, A.E., Swift, T.E., and Aucoin, 1990, Advanced thermal technology--an exploration lead tool: Petroleum Review [The Institute of Petroleum, England], v., 44, no. 525, October, p. 528-530.

Tanaka, T., and Sato, K., 1977, Estimation of subsurface temperature in oil and gas producing areas, northeast Japan: Journal of the Japanese Association of Petroleum Technologists, v. 42, no. 4, p. 1 [English summary].

Taylor, A.E., 1991, Marine transgression, shoreline emergence--evidence in seabed and terrestrial ground temperatures of changing relative sea levels, Arctic Canada: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 96, no. B4, April 10, p. 6893-6909.

Taylor, A.E., and Judge, A.S., 1981, Measurement and prediction of permafrost thickness, Arctic, Alaska, paper E3.6, in Annual Technical Meeting Transactions: Society of Exploration Geophysicists, p. 3964-3977.

Thom, W.D., Jr., 1925, Relation of earth temperatures to buried hills and anticlinal folds: Economic Geology, v. 20, no. 6, p. 524-530.

Thompson, M., and Burgess, T.M., 1985, Prediction of interpretation of downhole mud temperatures, SPE-14180: Society of Petroleum Engineers, presented at Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, preprint, 12 p.

Tilghman, S.E., George, C.R., and Benge, O.G., 1990, Temperature data for optimizing cementing operations, SPE-19939, in IADC/SPE Drilling Conference Proceedings: Society of Petroleum Engineers, p. 247-253. Later published in 1991, SPE Drilling Engineering, v. 6, no. 2, p. 95-99.

Timko, D.J., and Fertl, W.H., 1972, How down-hole temperatures, pressures affect drilling, part 5, Predicting hydrocarbon environments with wireline data: World Oil, v. 174, no. 10, October, p. 73-88.

Tissot, B., Califet-Debyser, Y., Deroo, G., and Oudin, J.L., 1971, Origin and evolution of hydrocarbons in Early Toarcian shales, Paris basin, France: AAPG Bulletin, v. 56, no. 12, p. 2177-2193.

Tissot, B.P., Pelet, R., and Ungerer, Ph., 1987, Thermal history of sedimentary basins, maturation indices, and kinetics of oil and gas generation: AAPG Bulletin, v. 71, no. 12, p. 1445-1466.

Toth, J., 1988, Ground water and hydrocarbon migration, in Back, W., Rosenshein, J.S., and Seaber, P.R., eds., Hydrogeology: Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, The Geology of North America, v. O-2, p. 485-502.

Tragesser, A.F., Crawford, P.B., and Crawford, H.R., 1967, A method for calculating circulating temperatures: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 19, no. 11, p. 1507-1512.

Trofimuk, A.A., Makogon, Y.F., Tolkachev, M.V., Cherskii, N.V., 1984, Some distinctive features of the discovery, prospecting, and exploitation of gas-hydrate bodies: Geologiya i Geofizika, v. 25, no. 9, p. 3-10.

Uyeda, S., 1988, Geodynamics, chapter 9.1, in R. Haenel, L. Rybach, and L. Stegna, eds., Handbook of terrestrial heat-flow density determination: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 317-352.

Uyeda, S., Chapman, D.S., and Zwart, H.J., eds., 1989, Thermal aspects of tectonics, magmatism, and metamorphism: Tectonophysics, v. 159, no. 3-4, p. 163-346.

Vacquier, 1984, Oil fields--a source of heat flow data: Tectonophysics, v. 103, p. 81-98.

Vacquier, V., Mathieu, Y., Lengendre, E., and Blondin, E., 1988, Experiment on estimating thermal conductivity of sedimentary rocks from oil well logging: AAPG Bulletin, v. 72, no. 6, p. 758-765.

Van Orstrand, C.E., 1918, Apparatus for the measurement of temperatures in deep wells, and temperature determinations in some deep wells in Pennsylvania and West Virginia: West Virginia Geological Survey, County Reports (Barbour and Upshur Counties, and western portion of Randoph County), p. 66-103.

Van Orstrand, C.E., 1926, Some evidence of the variation of temperature geologic structure in California and Wyoming oil districts: Economic Geology, p. 21, no. 2, p. 145-165.

Van Orstrand, C.e., 1941, Temperature of the Earth in relation to oil location, in Temperature; its measurement and control in science and industry: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, p. 1014-1033.

Vasseur, G., and Lucazeau, F., 1983, Bounds on paleotemperatures and paleoclimatic corrections: Zentralblatt fur Geologie und Palaontologie, Teil 1, Heft 1/2, p. 17-24.

Vasseur, G., Lucazeau, F., and Bayer, R., 1985, The problem of heat flow density determination from inaccurate data: Tectonophysics, v. 121, p. 25-34.

Venditto, J.J., and George, C.R., 1984, Better wellbore temperature data equals better cement jobs: World Oil, v. 198, no. 2, February 1, p. 47-50.

Vugrinovich, R., 1989, subsurface temperatures and surface heat flow in the Michigan Basin and their relationships to regional subsurface fluid movements: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 6, no., 1, February, p. 60-70.

Waples, D.W., 1984, Thermal models for oil generation, in Brooks, J., and Welte, D., eds., Advances in petroleum geochemistry, v. 1: Academic Press, London, p. 7-68.

Wilhelm, H., 1990, A new approach to the borehole temperature relaxation method: Geophysical Journal International, v. 103, no. 2, p. 469-481.

Willett, S.D., and Chapman, D.S., 1987, Analysis of temperatures and thermal processes in the Uinta basin, in C. Beaumont, and A.J., Tankard, eds., Sedimentary basins and basin-forming mechanisms: Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir No. 12, p. 447-461.

Willett, S.D., and Chapman, D.S., 1989, Temperatures, fluid flow, and heat transfer mechanisms in the Uinta Basin, in Beck, A.E., Garven, G., Stegna, L., eds., Hydrogeological regimes and their subsurface thermal effects: American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph 47, p. 29-33.

Williams, C.F., and Anderson, R.N., 1990, Thermophysical properties of the earth's crust--in situ measurements from continental and ocean drilling: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 95, no. B6, June 10, p. 9209-9236.

Williams, C.F., Anderson, R.N., and Broglia, C., 1988, In situ investigations of thermal conductivity, heat production, and past hydrothermal circulation in the Cajon Pass scientific drillhole, California: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 15, no. 9, August Supplement, p. 985-988.

Williams, J.H., Carswell, L.D., Lloyd, O.B., Jr., and Roth, W.C., 1984, Characterization of ground water circulation in selected fractured rock aquifers using borehole temperature and flow logs, in Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods in Ground Water Investigations Proceedings: National Water Well Association, Dublin, Ohio, p. 842-852.

Wood, D.A., 1988, Relationships between thermal maturity indices calculated using Arrhenius equation and Lopatin method--implications for petroleum exploration: AAPG Bulletin, v. 72, no. 2, p. 115-134.

Wood, S.G., and Dunham, D.J., III, 1986, Steamflood surveillance using temperature observation wells, SPE-15051, in 56th California Regional Meeting Proceedings: Society of Petroleum Engineers, v. 1, p. 33-42.

Wooley, G.R., 1980, Computing downhole temperatures in circulation, injection, and production wells: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 55, no. 9, p. 1509-1521.

Wright, P.M., Ward, S.H., Ross, H.P., and West, R.C., 1985, State-of-the-art geophysical exploration for geothermal resources: Geophysics, v. 50, no. 12, p. 2666-2699.

Xu, H., and Desbrandes, R., 1991, Formation evaluation using in-situ measurements of formation thermal properties: The Log Analyst, v. 32, no. 2, p. 144-157.

About the Author

Stephen Prensky is a research geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Petroleum Geology, Denver, Colorado. He has been with the USGS since 1975, working as well-log specialist in reservoir characterization. Previous experience includes exploration and production geology with Texaco's Offshore Division. He holds a B.A. and M.S. in geology from SUNY Binghamton, and the University of Southern California. Stephen has been a member of SPWLA since 1978, and is currently serving on the Board of Directors as Vice-President of Publications. His "Bibliography of Well-Log Applications," has been published annually in The Log Analyst since 1987. Stephen is also a member of AAPG, MGLS, SCA, and SPE.

Figure Captions

1. Precision temperature-gradient log (T-log) showing the correlation with lithology (from Conaway and Beck, 1977. Copyright by SEG, reprinted by permission).

2. Schematic of borehole temperature profile showing changes with time after cessation of circulation as the borehole approaches thermal equilibrium (borehole relaxation phase) (from Jorden and Campbell, 1984. Copyright by SPE, reprinted by permission).

3. Effect of cement behind casing on temperature gradient and location of the top of cement (Plisga, 1997. Copyright by SPE, reprinted by permission).

4. Temperature behavior in injection and production wells (from Hill, 1990. Copyright by SPE, reprinted by permission).

5. Thermal (cool) anomaly on temperature log caused by gas entry into a wellbore (Hill, 1990, modified from McKinley, 1982. Copyright by SPE, reprinted by permission).

6. Height of induced fractures indicated by thermal (cool) anomaly on temperature log (Hill, 1990; modified from Agnew, 1966. Copyright by SPE, reprinted by permission).

7. Correlation and comparison of T-logs to other geophysical logs (from Reiter et al., 1980. Copyright by SEG, reprinted by permission).

 

Home